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Water Softeners and Water Softening Plants

KORGEN is one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of a wide range of Water Softeners and High-Volume Water Softening Plants in Chennai,Tamil Nadu and select cities across South India.

While we have a wide gamut of pre-engineered and standard Water Softeners for homes and offices, we also, manufacture and supply high-volume Water Softening Systems custom-built for specific requirements of commercial and industrial segments.

Our technical team analyses the water characteristics such as the Total Hardness, Temporary-Permanent Hardness Content in the Water, other related parameters, evaluates the site conditions and specific customer requirements before deciding on the specifications of the Water Softening Plant. Even our standard modules of Water Softeners are selected / recommended based on key parameters of the feed water.

The efficacy, performance consistency and durability of a Water Softener plant depend on the correctness of the design, pre-treatment modules, feed water temperature and key engineering factors such as Vessel Volume, Material of Construction, Resin Quality besides complying with the prescribed usage and maintenance procedures.

Starting from water analysis to the selection of the right Water Softener that meets your requirements, KORGEN will closely guide you, at every stage, to take informed buying decisions.

After erecting and commissioning the Water Softening Plants, we also offer various types of after-sales service packages at very competitive rates to make sure that the Water Softener Systems deliver optimal performance and our customers get the maximum value out of their investment.

KORGEN Water Softeners are manufactured / sourced under the most stringent quality control norms and tested to international quality standards in every aspect.

Types of KORGEN Water Softeners
i. Manual, Semi-automatic and Fully Automatic Water Softeners for homes
ii. Customized high-volume Water Softening Plants for residential apartments
iii. Commercial Water Softeners and Softening Plants for offices and multi-storey buildings
iv. Industrial Water Softeners and Softening Systems for critical process applications

Our range of Water Softeners and Plants starts from a compact 750 LPH (Litres Per Hour) model and goes up to 1000m3 LPD (Litres per day) plant. Both co-current and counter-current regeneration options are made available based on specific requirements and site conditions.

Based on customer requirements, we supply manual, semi-automatic and fully automatic Water Softeners and Softening Plants made up of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) / Composite Vessels, Mild Steel with corrosion-proof Rubber Lining inside, epoxy-coating outside (MSRLEC) and high-grade Stainless Steel (SS).

Advanced and proven internal strainers used in KORGEN Water Softeners and large-scale Water Softening Plants ensure even distribution of the feed water into the resin bed and proper collection of softened water thereafter.

Automation of custom-built Water Softeners is achieved using semi and fully automatic multiport valves along with control panels that house process logic controllers. Multiport valves make the water filtration process highly user-friendly due to its single-point operations, controls and seal capability of the valves prevents internal port leaks. In case of higher flowrates, manual valves are used with complete support piping for smooth operations.

Advantages of KORGEN Water Softening Plants

  • Designed based on established formula and time-tested norms that maximize filtration area
  • High quality branded resins ensure efficient exchange of ions and softening of water
  • Customized Units based on the water characteristics and site conditions
  • Effectively removes suspended solids, turbidity and other physical impurities
  • Minimal pressure-drop across the filter bed
  • Delivers consistent performance at optimal efficiency over the long term
  • High quality internals and components ensure long life and durability
  • Lesser power consumption and user-friendly maintenance processes
  • Comes with 1 year all-inclusive warranty and special extended 5-years vessel warranty*
  • Additional accessories to facilitate easier operations and monitor various performance parameters. Eg. Digital Flow Meters, Totalizers, Pressure Gauges, Control Panels, Portable Test Kits etc.
  • Wide range of models (Manual, Semi-automatic, Fully Automatic) that are competitively priced
  • Prompt and efficient after-sales service network
  • * For select standard products. Conditions apply.
Know more about Hardness and Water Softeners

What is Hard Water ?

Hard Water - What is it?

The rain water, devoid of any minerals, picks up various types of naturally occurring dissolved minerals or inorganic salts as it passes over different surfaces and percolates down the ground. The types and quantum of minerals present in the water depends on the source from which it is drawn.

Water that contains hard salts, namely calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), more than the prescribed limits is called Hard Water. When the concentration of these hard salts exceeds its ‘solubility constant’, they start precipitating which leads to hard scaling.

Calcium and Magnesium may be present in the water in both carbonate and non-carbonate form. Carbonate Hardness is known as temporary hardness and non-carbonate hardness is known as permanent hardness.

While the hardness content in surface water (Rivers, Dams etc) is generally (few exceptions are there) within the prescribed limits, in ground water (Eg. Deep Bore Wells) the hardness can be excessive and the level of hardness is based on the sub-soil characteristics.

Around 75% of ground water in India is considered hard water since the water contains more than 150 ppm of total hardness. As per the WHO standards, the permissible hardness level in drinking water is 50 ppm (parts per million).

Continuous usage of water with excessive hardness content for general purpose and consumption, may lead to various types of practical difficulties and health hazards in the long term.

Hazards of Hardness

Hazards of Hardness

Hard water is generally not suitable for utility, consumption and industrial purposes. A few of the challenges posed by hard water usage is here below.

  • Excessive hardness in water causes scale deposits in pipes, faucets, showers, sinks, bathtubs and other plumbing acces sories leading to clogging and galvanic corrosion in the long term
  • Scale build-ups can severely affect the efficiency of process equipment such as cooling towers, boilers and other industrial machineries that use water.
  • Hardness can hamper the functioning of appliances such as washing machines, water heaters, dish washers and any water-using equipment due to the scale build-up it causes.
  • Soaps and detergents do not easily dissolve in hard water thereby preventing sufficient lathering. This in turn drastically reduces the cleaning power of soaps and detergents resulting in partially washed clothes carrying residual detergents. Hard Water also adversely affects the life of fabrics.
  • Continuous usage of hard water for bathing leads to craggy hair, hair loss, dry and itchy skin on account of soap scums.
  • Leaves spots and deposits on kitchen utensils and expensive crystal/silver wares
  • If used for consumption, hard water can lead to various health ailments including kidney stone formation. Hard water also spoils the natural taste of food and beverages.

Technology and Process Description

Technology and Process Description

Ion-exchange based water softening is the conventional way of reducing hardness content in water and is a proven and time-tested method used globally. Synthetic polystyrene material in the form of very small spherical-shaped beads called cationic resins are used in this method to facilitate the exchange process.

In this water softening process, the salts that induce hardness in the water (Ca,Mg) are substituted by a soft salt (Sodium-Na), a process termed as ion exchange. The crosslink structure of the resins contains negatively charged ‘exchange sites’ that can hold the ions.

When the feed water containing hard salts is passed through a bed of cationic resins supersaturated with sodium, these resins act as an exchange point where calcium and magnesium ions in the feed water stick to the ‘exchange sites’ on the resin surface and the sodium ions are knocked off. Calcium and Magnesium both being divalent easily displace the monovalent sodium ions and get attached to the resin. Feed water will continue to get softened until the resins get saturated with hard salts.

After the ‘Service Cycle’ is completed, the resins will have to be again regenerated with brine(sodium-rich) solution that is stored in the brine tank. This brine solution is injected into the softener vessel using an ejector. The concentrated sodium in the brine solution replaces the calcium and magnesium ions trapped on the resin surface and the water softener will be ready for the next ‘Service Cycle’. Excess brine and other impurities are washed out during the rinsing phase.

Note: Brine Solution need to be prepared by dissolving salt in water at prescribed concentrations.

Ca (HCO3)2 + Na2R = RCa + NaHCO3

CaSO4 + Na2R = RCa + Na2SO4

MgCl2 + Na2R = RMg + NaCl

Cationic Resins

Gravel | Pebbles | Silex


In case the feed water has turbidity, suspended solids and other related characteristics more than the permissible limits, suitable pre-treatment modules need to be used to ensure the long-term efficacy of the Water Softener Plant.

Maintenance of Water Softeners

Maintenance of Water Softeners

Regeneration (Brine Injection) Process: After completion of the service cycle (softening process), the resins will be filled up with Hard Salts and brine solution needs to be injected into the softener unit to remove the trapped hard salts and again saturate the resins with sodium. This is called regeneration, a vital process to ensure the continuity of the softening process. The injection of brine (NaCl) solution is done in the reverse direction. Based on water characteristics and end use applications, the regeneration can be done either by using raw water or the softened water.

RCa + NaCl = RNa + CaCl2

RMg + NaCl = RNa + MgCl2

Rinse: Once the regeneration is completed, fresh water is allowed to pass through the resin bed in the regular direction. This helps in gently washing out the excess salt, other impurities and resets the resin bed for the next service cycle.

These maintenance processes need to be performed at prescribed intervals based on the recommended OBR (Output Between Regeneration) for optimal performance and longer life of resins in the water softener plant.

High-intensity Backwash using Air Scouring

The polystyrene resins used in water softeners tend to break after prolonged use due to factors such as continuous water flow, high pressure inside the vessel etc. Such breakages are termed as attrition loss and is normally around 5-7% of the total resin quantity per annum. These resin fines (broken resins) if not removed from the vessel will choke up the bed and increase the pressure drop resulting in reduced flowrate of the water softener unit.

The fines on top of the resin bed are removed in normal backwash but some fines that go deep into the resin bed remain there. To remove these fines, extended backwash along with air scouring is used. This method is recommended based on the unit assessment done by our technical personnel but generally it is done - unless warranted under special circumstances - once in a year.

Product Features and Technical Information

Product Features and Technical Information of Water Softeners

Unless warranted under special conditions, Water Softeners and Water Softening Plants generally comprise the following major parts

  • iVessel
  • iiValve
  • iiiFood-Grade Cationic Resins
  • ivBrine Tank

The basic design and dimensions of Water Softeners are highly formula-driven and should be primarily based on the following factors.

  • Total Hardness present in the water
  • Other related feed water characteristics
  • Hourly Flow Rate (LPH) required
  • Volume of water to be softened per day
  • Desired OBR (Output between Regeneration)
  • Site Conditions and end use applications

General Applications

General Applications of Water Softener Plants

  • Used to reduce high level of hardness content in ground water for domestic-residential applications.
  • Used in commercial segments. ie., Hotels, Hospitals, Commercial Laundries etc
  • Used as Pre-treatment to DM Units and RO Plants
  • Used for the recirculation of industrial and process water.ie., Boiler Feed, Textile dyeing, Cooling Water Towers etc

Due to its high sodium content, softened water is not recommended for consumption, watering plants and irrigational purposes. Additional treatment is warranted to make the water usable for these applications.




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